Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

Citizens from towns of less than 20,000 inhabitants (10,000 inhabitants in the initial phase) and neighbourhoods located in the most under-populated and disadvantaged areas of Andalusia. As such, Guadalinfo was born to foster social cohesion and regional development by minimising both the urban-rural divide and the emergence of exclusion in processes of innovation.  The project is organised as a massive network with a strong degree of capillarity.

Co-creation process

Three different levels of co-creation can be emphasised: – Low co-creative content. Activities of this kind have to do with eAdministration procedures. Thus, in this level the basic aim of citizens when accessing a Guadalinfo centre is to be engaged in eAdministration procedures as users and being provided guidance on how to proceed with it. Co-creation in this case is almost negligible as the activity (and the outcome) is known and pre-defined – Medium co-creative content, where a training action is usually the “spark” to unleash co-creation practices. Good examples are those training actions of high technological & hands-on nature (e.g. robotics, 3D printing) where users co-create and co-innovate along with the local innovation agents and the other users. -High co-creative content. Here co-creation goes a step further, arising long-standing projects that were born or “incubated” in the living lab thanks to social innovation and collective intelligence. Usually co-design & co-production “shake hands”.

Digital Transformation Process

Guadalinfo was initially set up to close digital gaps and break down several barriers (i.e., technological, skills, etc.) and the centres were led by what was called an animator, in charge of bringing ICTs closer to people so as to ensure universal digital literacy.  Notwithstanding this, it greatly evolved from a digital literacy-based network to a powerful tool spurring social innovation and citizens´ empowerment, thus unleashing fruitful processes of co-creation.

Results, Outcomes & Impacts

Quantitative and qualitative assessment of Guadalinfo policies was set up through a scoreboard of indicators In the Guadalinfo living lab themselves, an online internal monitoring tool has been used since the beginning of the initiative in 2004 and provides results indicators for every Guadalinfo centre, updated every month.   Furthermore, the Second Strategic Plan (2016-2020) contained a very robust monitoring and evaluation system that is organised under periodic reports (quarterly, biannual and annual). The reports include a portfolio of indicators measuring the degree of completion of every action. A particular action of the Second Strategic Plan (n. 2.2.3) is called “Living Lab” and is targeted at “boosting social innovation through cooperation, collaboration and citizenry participation in order to take up projects and initiatives”. Two specific outcome indicators, namely, “number of projects taken up”, and “level of satisfaction of users” have been designed to measure the real impact. Finally, within the realm of some specific projects, results indicators are aligned to some macro indicators coming from external sources to determine the real impact of the measure.

Challenges & Bottlenecks

In the past, a major challenge was to how to effectively turn into a powerful social innovation tool, as Guadalinfo has been traditionally associated to a tool aimed at providing digital literacy. Currently the major challenge is how to cope with such different needs and expectation from the citizens ‘side. Guadalinfo is a pervasive network of living labs and a great deal of coordination is a priority. Local innovation agents need to be properly skilled to meaningfully interpret and provide useful responses, giving rise to different co-creation layers.

Transferability & Replicability

Guadalinfo is a showcase of replicability, as the project is organised as a massive network with a strong degree of capillarity. As such, about 770 centres are operating throughout Andalusia. Guadalinfo network is mostly funded by Andalusia Regional Government (Junta de Andalucía), which provides 66.66% of total funds, whereas the eight Provincial Councils (Diputaciones Provinciales) provide the remaining 33.34%. As a conclusion, the network is 100% public owned, and it is managed by the Fernando de los Ríos Consortium (Consorcio Fernando de los Ríos), which in turn is owned by the Andalusia Regional Government (50%) and the eight Provincial Councils (the remaining 50%). The Consortium provides strategic support and guidance, network capabilities, technical equipment, training, projects and innovation.

Success Factors

Guadalinfo is perceived as an element of trust and confidence for Andalusian population. The presence of Guadalinfo is pervasive in Andalusia, in such a way that whatever ICT-project involving public bodies you may think of, Guadalinfo will be somehow engaged.   Local innovation agents play a crucial role in the effective and successful implementation of Guadalinfo activities and vision. Local innovation actors are the main drivers of co-creation, and three specific skills have been identified as especially relevant to unleash co-creation potential, namely:
  • Versatility: as the local innovation agent is trained in whatever digital competence is considered necessary (having the European competence framework as a backdrop), versatility seems paramount
  • Pedagogic skills: these are especially necessary to create the atmosphere of trust and reliability “made in Guadalinfo”.
  • Soft skills (e.g. self-confidence, active listening, problem-solving, etc).

Lessons learned

The importance of trust and reliability to explain Guadalinfo success. Guadalinfo has been able to become a relevant social innovation platform in such a way that a sound alignment between supply (Guadalinfo centres) and demand (users and citizens) does exist. By doing so, Guadalinfo is: a) Increasing regional innovation and entrepreneurship potential of all Andalusians; b) Having a knock-on effect for the economy and growth in Andalusia, especially in rural areas and depressed areas; c) Promoting local and regional culture so as to reinforce local identity, having a further positive impact on the wellbeing and the quality of life of the Andalusian population as a whole.  

Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

The main stakeholders and beneficiaries are Brøndby Jobcenter, the disabled citizens, Brøndby Municipality, the recruitment companies as well as the society at large.

Co-creation process

The co-creation process can be divided into two phases. In the first phase, Jacob, an employee in charge of the flexi job scheme at Jobcenter Brøndby, and his manager recognize that the flexi-job process and network is operating in an inefficient way. As a result, it takes too long time to get a flexi- job candidate into work. For example, in the first 13 weeks after a citizen came to Jobcenter Brøndby, nothing happened and in some cases, nothing happened maybe for another 13 weeks. After the waiting period, a disabled citizen was allocated to a recruitment company at a time, so there was no competition between the different recruitment companies to get a citizen into work. Therefore, Jacob and his manager had made some strategic considerations about simultaneously allocating several recruitment agencies to find a flexi-job to a citizen. The process involved a lot of discussions, reflections and co-creation. The result of this process was that Jacob discussed this issue with one of his friends who is an IT expert and together they started conceptualizing and co-creating an IT solution that could solve this problem. This represents the second co-creation phase. The idea for establishing a company started therefore in 2012 and in 2013 the IT solution, “JobIntra”, was developed and E-BRO APS was founded with Jacob and his partner as co-founders.

Digital Transformation Process

JobIntra has induced a digital transformation of the process of finding a job to a flexi-job candidate. This digital process innovation can described as a “reverse process” of finding a job. In fact, prior to JobIntra the Jobcenter Brøndby allocated a candidate to one and only one recruitment company at a time, who then tried to find a job to the candidate. With JobIntra, Jobcenter Brøndby inputs a candidate information into the IT system. This information can be accessed by all recruitment companies that simultaneously try to find flexi-jobs to the candidate, thus competing on a candidate.  Furthermore, the recruitment companies can directly get in contact with the citizens, if necessary, thus improving substantially the communication among the different actors involved in finding a job.  This speeds up the process.

Results, Outcomes & Impacts

The adoption of JobIntra at Jobcenter Brøndby has generated several positive results.   Firstly, JobIntra has contributed to decrease unemployment among the flexi-jobs in Brøndby Municipality, which as a result has been ranked as one of the Danish municipalities with lowest flexi-jobs unemployment rates. Second, due to its functionality, JobIntra has substantially reduced the amount of time that the Jobcenter Brøndby’s  employees use on each specific flexi-job. This in turn has generated resources that can be used on the most complicated cases or on other types of activities within the job center. Thirdly, by reducing the amount of time it takes to place an unemployed disabled on the job market, it has increased the satisfaction of these citizens.  In the long term, JobIntra may benefit Brøndby Municipality and the Danish society, because by speeding up the process of finding jobs and by decreasing the number of unemployed disabled citizens, JobIntra decreases the amount of public subsidy paid to the unemployed by saving public unemployment expenditures.

Challenges & Bottlenecks

The main challenge concerns JobIntra’s wider adoption and use in other Danish municipalities, thus restricting the potential benefits that it could bring to society. It takes a lot of effort for E-BRO APS to get through the public eco-system, mainly due to the distance between the operational level and the policy level.

Transferability & Replicability

The IT solution “JobIntra” can be used and adopted by other job centers within the Danish context. This is what E-BRO APS does now: tries to sell the application to other Danish municipalities. Whether JobIntra could be applied and used in other national contexts depends on the way unemployment agencies are organized in such contexts.  

Success Factors

An important success factor is the use and adoption of JobIntra in other municipalities as this may contribute to decrease the number of unemployed flexi jobbers at national level with several societal benefits such as increased happiness and satisfaction of the unemployed disabled citizens and  saving in public unemployment expenditures. This is also the very main challenge that E-BRO APS is facing on a day to day basis.

Lessons learned

JobIntra is an innovation that may bring strategic changes at job centers in Denmark within the flexi job scheme. However, as most innovations, it is difficult for E-BRO APS to have it adopted and used in other municipalities. The main reasons being the distance between the operational and policy level in Danish municipalities.

Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

The Team is in charge of supervising and providing support for the Agency for Digital Italy (AgID), the operation branch of the Council of Ministers. Since the creation of the Team, two Ministries have played a key role in this setup: the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Department of Public Administration. The Ministry of Economy and Finance is responsible for the allocation of financial resources for digital transformation. Whereas the Department of Public Administration is in charge of all public sector needs and governs the process of modernisation and reform of the public administration. Lato sensu, the immediate beneficiary is the public sector, including public agencies, the Court of Auditors etc. However, its activities aim at creating a digital transformation impact for businesses and citizenry while making Italy more attractive from a digital perspective.

Co-creation process

The Team took a completely new approach to creating value by supporting public administrations in their digital transformation processes. This approach consists of three main pillars: (1) embracing existing and standstill projects necessary to build up the backbone of the digital architecture in the Italian public sector; (2) creating mechanisms, tools and processes to facilitate the Italian government’s pathway to digital change; (3) rolling out a model of active and open collaboration with all public actors. To explain the process of co-creation we provide examples about one project in particular that is underway. In the case of Data and Analytics Framework, at the co-commissioning stage, a public task force has been in charge with collecting requirements and setting jointly the priorities of the project. DAF’s goal is to create a platform for collecting, processing and sharing of public data, which will ultimately lead to improved public services based on the exchange and use of big data. During the co-design phase, extensively the experience of services users – especially internal ones – has driven the creation, prototyping and testing of the first version of the platform. Co-implementation is foreseen later, at the release stage, where service users will manage jointly public assets in the form of open data.

Digital Transformation Process

To support and advance the process of digital transformation, as mentioned earlier, the Digital Team has conceived a strategy built around three main pillars, working on them concomitantly. In the first one, the Team continues to implement a set of existing and ongoing projects designed to generate value through digital transformation, while contributing further by establishing new ones. By and large, these projects regard infrastructure and interoperability, services and tools championing a human-centric model. In the second pillar, to support the above-mentioned projects, the actions of the Team has focused on empowering the capacity of public administration in terms of assessing needs and finding proper solutions for developing and designing services fit for specific purposes. Finally, the third pillar is about engaging openly with the public sector through a staged approach, involving first enthusiastic adopters, and eventually get laggers on board.

Results, Outcomes & Impacts

Given the nature of change, the Digital Team is contributing to implementing, the timeframe for seeing results matters. Most visible achievements are still measurable in terms of outputs, whereas impact and long-term value creation will have to be assessed at a later stage. In terms of outputs, we can refer to cost savings, time savings and productivity, the introduction of new services and creation of support tools for the public administration. In parallel, the Team focused on creating value in terms of skills and competencies, and a proper culture for digital transformation in the public sector; simplification and usability of public services for citizens and crucial from a societal perspective, the value of transparency.

Challenges & Bottlenecks

Among the challenges emphasized by the interviewed members of the Team can be mentioned: (1) cultural resistance to change; (2) lack of skills and digital awareness among public managers and policymakers, which leads to reluctance towards ambitious projects; (3) fragmentation of databases, power and plurality of suppliers, which slows down the process of adaptation, (4) lack of communication.

Transferability & Replicability

At the outset or in a more advanced phase, all the projects follow a user- or human-centred approach and design thinking methodology applied in developing services, directly targeting users (internal or external). At the same time, the Team adopts a management style that is agile, collaborative and efficient.

Success Factors

The radical approach adopted by the Team meant a departure from focusing exclusively on strategies and instead support planned actions with structured mechanisms and processes that lacked in the public sector. This required also a redesign of the process management, introducing an agile approach for: budget and staff recruitment, procurement process, software development process etc.  

Lessons learned

To ensure sustainability and support for such a complex process of transformation, the Team did not start from scratch; rather it has relied and acted upon already existing programmes that could work while launching new ones considering successful models developed elsewhere. With this in mind, the focus has been on both the definition of a long-term roadmap and, most importantly, the provision of means to make projects operational (tools, communication, etc.). Finally, the Team has engaged with other stakeholders to exponentially increase inputs and achieve greater outputs.

Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

NEMO exists to take care of patients with neuromuscular diseases and their families. They are frequently grouped in family associations. The team of doctors, specialists, nurses and the management are all devoted to putting the patients at the centre of the treatment / care. The city of Messina is talso an important community for Nemo in terms of local support, because the city is small, so the Centre is more representative within that context and all the community is involved in the project. When patients die, the family raise donations for the Centre, and all of the persons involved participating in all the stages, even in the death moment. Professionals also mention ASL – the local public healthcare institution, but maybe even more important are the suppliers/home care providers, that understand the functioning and the bureaucracy to which they are subject to and are flexible in efficiently providing Nemo with necessary supplies.

Co-creation process

Co-creation is taking place in all three phases: planning, structuring and service delivery. Not yet in the part when patients go home (domicile phase), as the Centre is not completely well structured for that yet. According to patients, value is created in both the design and the delivery of services, as Nemo works, in co-creation, co-production with them, on innovation, listening to their needs and treating them with dignity. The importance of the families’ integral participation in the process is highlighted in the professionals’ testimonial as well. All stakeholders also agree on the evaluation of services, as it allows the professionals to redesign and adapt their service, which do not exist separately, but it is a result of all phases in which the patient is present.

Results, Outcomes & Impacts

The patients and families are all very satisfied with the non-standardised, or individualised, care model applied in Nemo. They rate each professional they meet during their treatment on a scale from 1 to 7 as follows: nurse coach: 6,71; physiotherapist: 6,65; nurse: 6,76; speech therapist: 6,69; doctor: 6,75. According to page 21 of the CSS report, their perception of the treatment received from their arrival through their stay in Nemo’s facilities is as follows: possibility of accessing Nemo 24/7: 6,69; respect to their privacy: 6,67; their perception of being treated as a person, and not just as a patient: 6,60; respect and approach regarding their religious beliefs: 6,59; dedicated spaces to leisure time (recreation, tv, games): 6,56.

Challenges & Bottlenecks

In spite of the unarguable evidence collected in the different fieldwork approaches regarding value creation, the question of value destruction was also brought up by some of the involved parts. Nurse coach brought up the risk from the part of healthcare professionals of being too involved in their jobs and ultimately “loosing” their sense of personal life. Also, the “excess” of care can highlight a consequence of value destruction for the patients as they could expect too much care and forget that they have a brute, degenerative pathology that needs an active role from them too to be fought. Political relations must be carefully managed too, otherwise a wrong move can lead to value destruction, like in the nonprofit world, where egoism of its actors can sometimes lead to conflicts and disruption, or in the social media world, with the propagation of various news, which can generate conflicts and disruption in the value creation process. Finally, the risk of creating excessively high expectations and not delivering what patients expect, i.e. the cure, because it has not yet been found for neuromuscular diseases, also represents a big challenge.

Transferability & Replicability

The model of the nurse coach is already inspired from something that is well-known in the U.S. Model. Also, the methodologies is applied in four different clinical facilities throughout Italy. So, the clinical medical concept it not related to any very specific, local context and can be replicated or transferred.

Success Factors

Creating a symbiosis among all the stakeholders is what makes the individualised care system work: patients must be aware and feel confident towards the multidisciplinary team; healthcare professionals must carry certain types of value (respect, dignity, etc.) not only in their professional life but also in their personal one to be able to use them with the patients; family associations play a crucial supporting role (financially, emotionally, in research); the supplier/home care providers, that understand the functioning and the bureaucracy to which they are subject to and are flexible in efficiently providing Nemo with necessary supplies, are facilitators; the local health public institutions need to be involved as well; and the citizens and communities are key too. All stakeholders work hand in hand towards the same goal, i.e. allowing people with neuromuscular diseases to not only survive but actually live quality lives.

Lessons learned

Evaluations are critical to constantly improve the services and keep as close as possible to the patients’ needs. Through constant monitoring of how much they offer to every patient, they can improve the answers to treatment needs. Based on this principle, they have developed a system for evaluating the satisfaction of patients accessing the services, based on their perception of the care/operating model. In concrete, Nemo has developed a customer satisfaction survey which is the result of a multidisciplinary work, through which the professionals of Nemo have expressed their point of view on the issues to be evaluated. For the first time, topics such as the respect for the individual and his/her choices, the perception of being ‘at the center of care’, welcoming to the patient’s family nucleus, were studied. This system also allows for the healthcare professional to redesign their role based on the indicators that are measured not only by the patients, but also by the public healthcare system.