Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

The foundation mainly relies on income as a subcontractor to the public sector, offering education within the ‘special planned youth education programme’, thus a key stakeholder is the municipalities using the program. Other stakeholders are the customers of the social enterprises and other organisations that are part of Grennesminde’s network. The key beneficiaries are the  young people, but to some extent also the municipality, since Grennesminde as subcontractor offers a public service.

Co-creation process

The way Grennesminde functions today is based on a development process initiated by a change in legislation that the organization needed to respond to. Hence co-creation of the public service has developed over time, both due to systemic changes and due to a hiring process focusing on recruiting candidates with a business mindset.

Digital Transformation Process

No digital transformation process is going on.

Results, Outcomes & Impacts

Despite being evaluated upon the measurement and quality criteria in the formalised inspections, the managers of Grennessminde furthermore distinguish between impact at a micro or macro level. At a micro level, the managers stress all the little success experiences during the everyday life at Grennessminde. At a macro level, the success is also understood as two-fold. On the one hand it is to support or trigger a cultural change in the municipalities where the employees (as representatives of the system) meet the youngster with respect and in this manner open up the doors of the system. On the other hand, it is believed a success criterion to push and actively engage in the debate on social economy in Denmark.

Challenges & Bottlenecks

A main driver that eases collaboration is clear expectations from the municipalities, transparency in the referral and assessment process, and trust from stakeholders and partners.  In opposition, a key challenge has to do with navigating in diverse realities with different quality parameters; the public sector and the third sector. Also, the aspect of clashing logics is also mirrored in structural settings, where it becomes hard to operate and change practices due to municipal silos and silo thinking. This can e.g. be between different administrative bodies or between different groups of professionals.

Transferability & Replicability

The case in itself is not easy transferable, but the idea of establishing work integrated social enterprises is not new, and as such the case can be an illustrative example.

Success Factors

The overall aim of Grennessminde is to create a meaningful life for young people with special needs. To be part of the job market is perceived key in this regard, which is why Grennessminde supports the development of their social and collegial skills. Hence the value lies in the experience of the youngsters as being important relative to colleagues and their job function. Thus, the success is not measured in people getting a job, but rather in empowering the young people.

Lessons learned

An overall challenge regarding the understanding of success criteria and measurements is that, in Grennessminde’s view, most municipalities focus on the degree of youngsters that have entered the job market – despite not being able to undertake ordinary jobs. A circumstance, which is especially in a long-term perspective hard to identify, since it is illegal to keep civil registration numbers and hence Grennessminde cannot know, or show, how the young people are doing after e.g. a two years period. Therefore, Grennessminde urges the municipalities to make as specific measurement parameters as possible, while the youngsters are at Grennessminde, e.g. to be able to do a bus ride alone and hence support that the youngsters become ready for the job market – whether as an employee at Grennessminde or at another work place.

Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

A key stakeholder in a Danish context is the municipality, and more specifically the managers and employees at care centres and home care. The service of the bike ride cannot be outlived without these. Another key stakeholder is thus the politicians, who have been part of pushing the idea forward. Besides the public sector stakeholders, a key actor is the volunteers and the beneficiaries are the elderly.

Co-creation process

The idea and the service of getting a bike ride is not the outcome of co-creation, understood as deliberative innovation processes. Anyhow the idea has been developed and tailored to countries outside Denmark, where the public sector is not the main provider of elderly care.

Digital Transformation Process

CWA offers a digital booking platform, but the interviews revealed that for some care centres it was easier to use a manual calendar. And in the cases using the platform, it is not transforming practices and procedures.

Results, Outcomes & Impacts

It is difficult to highlight specific results and outcomes of the bike ride in itself (see success criteria), but the success of CWA as a foundation and the many countries that now also offer bike rides for elderly can be seen as evidence for impact regarding the service/idea.

Challenges & Bottlenecks

The public managers stress that fiery souls are key when it comes to implementing the initiative – either positioned in the administration or within elderly care, and these need managerial back-up. Another barrier relates to the operation of CWA. The public managers tell how they are left alone with the initiative after the implementation phase. This experience is both related to the awareness from the municipality and from the CWA secretariat. To exemplify, it is the responsibility of the care centre/home care to maintain the trishaws and they are not granted any funding for repairing or buying new bicycles if they are damaged.

Transferability & Replicability

The initiative has been easily transferred to municipalities in Denmark and to other settings internationally.

Success Factors

The impact of the initiative  is not perceived by CWA and public managers in traditional quantitative metrics but rather in qualitative aspects, such as the general enhancement of the joy of life among the elderly. Another positive aspect of the visibility of the elderly in the local community is an increased awareness of elderly, dementia etc. among citizens in general. Still, CWA is working on more concrete evaluation criteria to professionalise and legitimise the bike ride as a method and an approach to increased life quality among the elderly.

Lessons learned

The case of CWA is interesting due to the high degree of positivity that surrounds the movement. The initiative and the foundation do not seem to meet a lot of resistance concerning the cause per se; to ensure that elderly stay mobile and part of society. Thus, it seems that if the cause is perceived highly legitimate the room for manoeuvre increases. Externally, since it becomes easier to engage in strategic collaborations and to recruit volunteers, and internally because the organization, based on trust in their own raison d’être and main objective, becomes flexible in regards to development and organizing, as long as the main objective stays the same. Another key aspect is how the innovation is positioned in the eco-system of public elderly care services. CWA is mainly an add-on to formal elderly care, since the foundation does not overtake tasks or roles of the public sector. In this manner they are not subject to competition regarding resources and legitimacy, making it less problematic for the municipalities to engage in collaboration.

Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

Apart from PricewaterhouseCoopers, beneficiaries include public administrations involved in specific projects such as the Lombardy Region.  

Co-creation process

Uptake of co-creation by private companies is a relatively recent trend, spurred by increased connectivity, technological innovation, and prioritization of user experiences. A recent report from Hitachi Europe found that “58 per cent of businesses have piloted co-creation projects to help them innovate.” More rapid communication between customers and service providers has altered the typical business relationship and thus PwC Experience Centers are becoming critical for facilitating co-creation and producing viable solutions for public sector clients. At the Experience Centers, PwC builds business approaches and methodologies based on their BXT mentality – which recognizes the interconnectedness of Business, Experience, and Technology. It places the human experience at the center of business and technological transformation – ultimately drawing on multiple perspectives and disciplines in development processes. Summarily, the BXT mindset evaluates proposed solutions holistically and stresses the importance of collaborative approaches, building around questions such as; is the solution useable? Is the solution useful? Does the solution work? The Centers’ application of a BXT-minded Service Design for Growth model and its associated co-creation processes help PwC remain adaptable and adjust services to meet specific client demands. The Service Design for Growth model is comprised of four key stages: 1) Exploration, 2) Strategy, 3) Co-Creation, and 4) Growth and focuses on impact and growth delivery. For each design stage, the PwC team introduces exercises to gain clearer understanding, define the service through synthesis of research, generate solutions, and transpose the principles of open-innovation and collaboration in clients’ everyday business. However, different from the sequential and rigid Stage-Gate approach, the process remains Agile in design and replicates the Design>Test>Iterate steps until outcomes are approved by all actors. A final ‘rapid prototype’ is the expected output, which PwC underlines as “cheaply, easily, and quickly changeable.” This method is user-oriented – meaning it is human centric rather than a top-down process – and Co-Creation sessions allow PwC staff to bring together stakeholders in product/service conceptualization to secure equal investment and widespread of the project. PwC also importantly valorizes incremental innovation, focusing on the small deliverables and touch points throughout the design process. At the Experience Centers, PwC teams move clients through the co-creation process that consists of two pre-project phases, Discovery and Session Design, then the Co-Creation Session itself, and lastly is followed by two post-session activities, De-brief and Deliverable Realization. Co-creation sessions can last anywhere from 1-5 days, depending on the client’s request, and are customized to meet specified objectives. The flexible and iterative nature of the co-creation methodologies at the Centers also allows for bi-directional learning. PwC benefits from leading co-creation sessions by refining their own approaches and learning what works with clients and clients revise their own business models to match consumer demands. Applying co-creation approaches brings new knowledge to the firm while also attracting forward thinking clientele. To better understand the specific exercises used in each design stage, we will analyze the use of co-creation sessions and Design Thinking by the PwC Experience Center in Milan, Italy in the Portal for the Lombardy Region project. In July, the PwC Milan Experience Center hosted a collective group including representatives from Regione Lombardia, business and test users, service managers, and other relevant administrative personnel. The participants were selected based on their wide range of backgrounds and intentionally included portal end-users. From the beginning, the co-creation session objective was clearly defined and the following goal was shared with participants: How can we help the project back office (Lombardy Municipality administrators) to operate smoothly to support users in a simple and immediate accession of the project? PwC staff then provided an overview of Design Thinking methodologies and the Design Sprint approach, which aim to promote a multidisciplinary vision, are human-centric, and ultimately deliver solutions in a time efficient manner. PwC staff divided the group into two sub groups, the citizens and the firm, and the groups were given a secret task that involved the user portal in order to initiate the service road mapping exercises. In the mapping process, there was emphasis placed on asking ‘why’ behind each problem solving statement to help uncover what the root issues were for the service providers and consumers. Giving each group a persona with specific user characteristics helped participants develop mutual understanding for the needs of the user portal and the challenges faced by firms developing the products. Further, PwC bases proto-personas used in the exercises on real data and market research to guarantee that the alignment in communication resulting from the session is applicable in a real world setting. After discussing the frustrations and needs of each persona in their groups, participants played a word association game where they could role-play and discover their overlapping concerns. Next, in the analysis phase, participants identified the various touch points for the portal services and discovered where there were issues within the service delivery model. Lastly, they worked together to generate solutions for how to enhance communication between stakeholders and improve the operational flow from a “What I Need From You” perspective. Overall, in the Lombardy Portal use case, the Experience Center’s co-creation session was instrumental for bringing together stakeholders using an all-inclusive approach and for creating an innovative, user-friendly service/product delivery model. The final output was a new ready-to-use portal for standardization in resolving of public works issues and improved assistance for Lombardy residents. The role of front-end employees/public service staff in co-creation. In co-creation sessions, front-end employees are essential for facilitating and guiding participant interactions. At PwC Experience Centers, there are two main types of employees working with external clients. The first group, are the creative specialists (digital engineers, industrial designers, UX technicians) that bring clients’ visions to fruition. The second group, are the facilitators of the co-creation sessions. The PwC staff in the facilitator roles are extensively trained in facilitator methodology and are well experienced at bringing together different perspectives in collaborative design thinking. Critically, the plurality of employees’ job profiles at the Centers allows for creativity in services offerings and guarantees that various types of clients will have the necessary personnel to execute the co-creation session objectives. To quote a Senior Manager at the Rome Experience Center referencing the value of staffing Centers with a variety of skillsets “the team (PwC) must be ready to support the different projects in every moment.” As aforementioned, the PwC staff act also in a ‘meta-consulting’ capacity – sharing information with and teaching internal PwC consultants. The normal managing consultancy team structures are not applicable to PwC Experience Center project teams. Instead, the front-end employees play dual roles as they are also actively participating in the co-creation process and the member composition is distinct from the usual partner, manager, senior associate, and junior associate team format. This is vital for co-creation to remain focused on the user and decentralized in structure. Additionally, the PwC Experience staff are tasked with procuring transformative interactions between stakeholders and ensuring that solutions from sessions are participant driven. This function is divergent from a typical PwC-client relationship, which can be less iterative and more unidirectional. The role of users/citizens in co-creation As noted in the section on how co-creation is outlived, co-creation prioritizes users/citizens at every stage and incorporates participatory design thinking. One of the main priorities of co-creation is iteration – allowing for user feedback and touch points throughout the development process. PwC considers customers/users/citizens as co-designers and their involvement is critical for avoiding product-centric outcomes and replication of past implementation mistakes. Part of PwC’s intermediary role is to relay the value of active user involvement to clientele, including public organizations and governments contracting the Centers’ services. This is executed through PwC’s creation of user and provider ‘personas,’ which helps cluster common characteristics and fosters mutual understanding among participants. Users/citizens need to feel a sense of commonality amongst themselves and development of personas also reveals universal concerns, frustrations, and challenges that were previously unacknowledged. There are several examples where PwC Experience Centers engaged multi-stakeholders and served as platforms where users/citizens could express their needs and wants of certain products/services. In the Lombardy case, for instance, in addition to the co-creation session PwC helped organize a call-for-feedback session, where Lombardy citizens were able to submit their opinions on the new public portal. Through this process, the Regione Lombardia could collect responses and better understand the fundamental issues of the application based on the user experiences. Another example, the Meet Sweden project pioneered by the PwC Stockholm Experience Center in partnership Swedish Industrial Design Foundation (SVID) and Swedish public agencies, highlights how the public sector is growing increasingly interested in the role of users/citizens in service model development. Asylum seekers in Sweden often struggle with long and arduous processes when trying to resettle and legally immigrate to Sweden. Information is lost between multiple visits to disjointed public organizations and refugees does not feel in control of their own asylum journey. To remedy some of these issues, PwC Stockholm brought together private and public actors as well as the migrants themselves at the Experience Center to participate in co-creation sessions and generate human-centric solutions. Assessing the needs of the migrants was essential when developing the layout and in-app design features in the Meet Sweden mobile application. As a result, the participants jointly created a new mobile application that streamlines the asylum process and saves time, money, and energy of all involved actors. This is just one project where livelihoods were improved based on co-creation design thinking and it exposes the potentialities of Experience Centers in enhancing public service delivery models. The role of other stakeholders (private actors, communities) in co-creation Given the Service Design for Growth delivery model’s emphasis on multi-stakeholder engagement, other private actors and the community at-large are valuable contributors, especially in co-creation sessions. Community stakeholder groups and private actors are active in participatory design thinking exercises in order to keep the target focus group, end users, at the core of solutions. Becoming representatives and managers of the public services/products instills important leadership characteristics in participants and ultimately facilitates self-governed, sustainable organizational processes.

Digital Transformation Process

PwC Experience Centers’ principal objective is to bring together customers and businesses in dynamic spaces to establish business models that incorporate user feedback at all design stages. In occupying this intermediatory role, Experience Centers help identify user needs and the root causes of customer dissatisfaction through co-creation processes so the resulting business model used by the client satisfies needs of end-users. This open-innovation environment attracts private companies and public organizations looking to modernize and transform the business-consumer service delivery relationship. Their human-centric nature makes these spaces distinct and helps concentrate varied perspectives and problem solving tactics in a central meeting location. Overall, PwC builds its Centers’ objectives around four key pillars:
  • Customer: placing the user at the center of the design process
  • Power of perspective: incorporating multiple perspectives in solutions
  • Always in Beta: maintaining iterative solutions that can be adjusted
  • Experiment with tech: enhancing existing tech and/or brainstorming new uses
  • Through iterative activities at the Centers, including group brainstorming in the Sandbox rooms, usability tests of company products and design thinking exercises, PwC works jointly with the public sector, its providers and the citizens to develop approaches that align with the above pillars. PwC intentionally outfits each Experience Center with adjustable, client-friendly workspaces and focuses on developing efficient and agile solutions. While Centers in every country belonging to the PwC network abide to a shared set of methodologies and approaches, each has its own focus and peculiarities. PwC structures each physical space differently to match regional and cultural characteristics. One example is the PwC Rome Experience Center. Inside the Center, there are flexible spaces with adjustable walls and moveable tables to accommodate activities organized for and with clients. It has a work café with objects of Italian design to create a familiar environment conducive to make people unwind and spur a positive ideation and reflection process. Additionally, the interactive technology and writeable walls incorporated in the central Sandbox meeting room offer clients unique spaces for meetings, workshops, and trainings with PwC UX design and technology professionals. The Testing Lab and Observatory Room include a unidirectional mirror so clients can carry out usability tests and observe real time client reactions to services/products. The Rome Experience Center also has AI technology, 3D printing, and contemporary digital programming to collaborate with clients in the development of prototypes. Typically, larger organizations have more rigid organizational hierarchies and learned cultural habits, which can make implementation of flexible methodologies difficult. The objective of the PwC Experience Centers are to function as testbeds and incubators for entrepreneurial design thinking and help PwC evaluate hybrid/agile managerial approaches to public sector challenges, in-house. By having the Centers operate in this way, PwC can overcome organizational challenges and share niche-consulting expertise gathered through Center activities to internal PwC consultants. This sort of ‘Agile Desk’ unit of PwC is transformative for internal work cultural – both enhancing workflow and teaching nuanced strategies for managing client relationships. There is a tri-fold benefit from PwC Experience Centers as clients, their customers, and PwC, learn and improve from the co-creation sessions and find solutions to broad, complex problems.

    Results, Outcomes & Impacts

    Living Labs play a critical role in displaying the mutual value of co-creation approaches for public and private actors. In the public sector, there is a hesitancy to welcome consumer engagement throughout the service design process. Governments and public organizations are fearful that actively seeking consumer input is too cost and time intensive and are unaware of the potential benefits for engaging customers in the earlier design stages. Therefore, it is essential to understand the PwC Experience Centers’ role in helping enable public-private mutual understanding and fostering innovative co-creation solutions. They add value by acting as a platform for idea exchange between all actors, inciting and analyzing customer feedback, and promoting multi-perspective discourse. The resulting improvement in services and increase in public value benefit the supply-side and user-side equally, and substantiates the importance of intermediaries in opening communication channels. It enables organizations and companies to explore how to improve their own services and/or processes with consumer engagement as the central focus and at the Centers they can test, fail, retest, and optimize proposed strategies before actual implementation. Social learning and/or contamination of techniques/approaches during interactions at PwC Experience Centers is another key way that public value is realized. Social learning refers to two simultaneous, complementary, and intertwined processes: innofusion (Fleck, 1988) and domestication of technology (Sørensen, 1996). Fleck defines innofusion as the innovation that takes place during the diffusion of new technology amongst participants. In this phase, users discover their needs and wants through a process of technological design, trial, and exploration. The other component, domestication of technology, addresses the pre-existing “heterogeneous network of machines, systems, routines and culture.” Essentially, it recognizes how cultural consumption habits influence user behavior and underlines the value of incorporating users’ creativity in product design processes. For PwC Experience Centers, a transfer of co-creation approaches and design thinking techniques to its participants is valuable for ensuring sustainability of solutions and enabling shared sponsorship to anticipate possible resistance to project implementation. Additionally, there is a cross contamination of techniques between participants as they originate from diverse backgrounds and bring to the workshops different views for how to solve problems. In this process, divergence in ideas and incorporation of distinct actors allows critical knowledge transfer that often precludes innovation and helps identify overlapping challenges. Outcomes generated from co-creation activities at the Centers have included the use of private sector business models by public organizations. By seeing the design elements of private sector models implemented by PwC, clients can interpret and apply similar structures in their own operations – thus initiating a transfer of proven strategies between private and public actors. The ability to measure performance varies from center to center, as there is not a standardized system of analysis at the macro level. At the above-mentioned PwC Stockholm Experience Center, they have begun testing ways to assess the effectiveness of their products/services in terms of end user impact. Labeled as a ‘creative audit,’ PwC Stockholm staff retroactively analyzed their work in the past year. The criteria used to measure impact were developed around questions such as “How many end users have we reached?” and “How many lives have improved as a result of innovative business and service models?” There is a distinction in how PwC aims to measure the performance of Experience Centers against the broader PwC mission, which has traditionally been more concerned with client value. The underlying driver for evaluation is improvement of end user experiences rather than profitability and other conventional business metrics. While still in its early stages, the results from the Swedish case to a certain extent validate the value of PwC Experience Centers as innovation incubators. In addition, external organizations and other Living Labs are also looking to collaborate with PwC to actively monitor the impact of co-creation in their respective sectors. Based in Norway, the Asker Welfare Lab, a citizen engagement lab that “adopts an investment mind-set and treats citizens as co-investors,” has contracted PwC to help develop key performance indicators for the lab’s projects. They are working with PwC to develop a measurement model that, together with Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities, can monitor outcomes and trace results of how the lab is driving innovation. The PwC Experience Centers’ role in measurement practices is still yet to be determined, but validating the Centers’ activities and helping other labs track their progress are chief priorities.

    Transferability & Replicability

    It is expected that such digital transformation practice could be replicated in other parts of the Italian public administration if the need and the will is there, since it is the same socio technical conditions that apply. Whether such digital transformation can be replicated in public organizations located in other national contexts depends on the way public administration is organized in such contexts as well as the level of digitalization of both businesses and society.

    Success Factors

    PwC Experience Centers strive to alter existing unidirectional service/product deliveries. In regards to the service experience for users, more specifically there are two principal focuses:
  • Become more human centered in solutions for problems through qualitative based research approaches and human insight
  • Produce agile and iterative ways of working that draw multiple perspectives and provide timely/efficient testing of concepts for enhancing user experiences
  • Theoretically, in applying these principles PwC can foster multidirectional and collaborative relationships between developers and consumers. Improving co-creation interactions has two potential effects for the customer: (1) It reduces transaction costs, risk, and uncertainty, and (2) it reduces the costs of the interaction for the consumer, which leads to greater satisfaction with and trust in the company (Rajah et al, 2008). These improvements for the customer are interlinked with enhanced productivity for the supplier and for the contracted firm (PwC in this case). In working with the end users throughout the co-creation process, subsequent organizational models used by clients reflect specificities of the customers and provide material for PwC Experience Staff to utilize in their role as meta-consultants to the firm. The resulting service experience/relationship is circular, valorizing iteration and human input in design. Clients and customers can walk away from experiences at the PwC Experience Centers with new levels of understanding and transparency, which then translates to sustained changes in business models and provider-customer relationships. Uniquely, the Experience Centers allow PwC to diversify its approaches away from traditional Stage-Gate methods toward more Agile On-Demand approaches and this has also impacted the inside work culture at PwC. Stage-Gate is a methodology where the project is divided into separate phases and the manager leads the continuation of the process. Developed to avoid reworking or redirecting processes, the Stage-Gate model remains limited in its ability to incorporate external feedback and in its dynamism. Amidst the digital revolution, Agile approaches emerged and gained traction as they were inherently more responsive and emphasized the role of people over processes. At PwC, the adoption of Agile methodologies by its Experience Centers has expanded and permeated across other business units and has attracted new and varied clientele. Further, through the Experience Center unit, PwC experiments with additional forms of flexible approaches and this has contributed to its successes in rapidly developing product/services that alleviate misalignments between the client and their customers.  In the public sector, transforming the service experience to be more human-centric is growing in popularity and in several cases PwC’s involvement has helped spur new private-public partnerships. Another use case from the PwC Stockholm Experience Center is the Storsthlm project. In response to Stockholm’s recent growth, the Greater Stockholm municipalities needed to reorganize management processes in the areas of politics and public administration. Together with PwC, the municipalities and the County Council collaborated on the Health and Support initiative as part of the new Regional Development Plan that aims to enhance citizens’ mobility and access to public resources. One aspect of the plan focused on improving public assistance programing for the aging population. Within the PwC co-creation sessions, outputs were constructed around a core objective: How can we make sure to deliver on helping citizens through the aging process? In working with the public municipalities, engaging with elderly citizens, and integrating co-creation methodologies, PwC helped keep the solution human centered and rooted in qualitative research. The municipalities reinvested in their citizens and relied on PwC business approaches to solve reoccurring issues in administering of public services. This resulted in improved interconnectivity between municipalities and a collaborative program design that moved away from typical silos and disjointed public assistance organizations in the public sector.

    Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

    The main target of the programme is Roma community. An experiment has been carried out in Paris and Toulouse.

    Co-creation process

    The Melting Potes network gathered numerous partners: – the Unis-cité association, and in particular the Toulouse office (as architect of the project) – the Civic Service Agency is a Public Interest Group under the supervision of the Ministry of National Education. – the Di-Air (Inter-ministerial Delegation for the Reception and Integration of Refugees), which is the structures in charge of refugees in temporary accommodation centre), CHU (University Hospital Centre), CADA (Centre for Asylum Seekers). – the National education, in particular the Academic Centre for the education of newly arrived allophone pupils and children from itinerant families and travellers). The teachers of FLE who are involved in the Unis-cité programme. Schools in which allophone families will register their children. Schools for French as a Foreign Language. -The platform “health-precariousness” of the city of Toulouse, which is a platform gathering all the actors of precariousness (health, housing, professional integration). -The regional and departmental directorate for youth, sports and social cohesion), in charge of managing long-term programmes on territorial level. -Other partners are also part of this innovation network, health professionals, for example school medicine, volunteers of the Médecin du Monde association and associations dedicated to refugees. -Funders: Unis-cité private national funders, the Civic Service Agency, the National Education, local funders (local authorities, etc.).

    Digital Transformation Process

    This case study is not about a digital transformation process, but it’s a social innovation. Social innovation refers to the target of the programme, the search for diversity and cultural mix  and the community support.  

    Results, Outcomes & Impacts

    It is difficult to measure some of the integration process, but the integration of refugees or Roma through the community support is effective. A snowball effect is noticed from the moment a child of a community is sent to school thanks to the actions of the community support. Even if the impact is difficult to estimate, an increase in social cohesion due to the reduction of prejudices among young people in civic service, the sensitization of young people by the Melting Potes group and the sensitization of the families of young volunteers has been noted.

    Challenges & Bottlenecks

    The main challenges that the programme faced during its implementation was related first of all to human obstacles. Roma are often confused with Travellers, which gives the image of people who would not want to settle on the territory. In addition, young Roma or some refugees are subjected to discrimination when they want to open a current account to undertake their civic service. Another obstacle relates to differences in equal treatment depending on the territory.  The new law regarding refugees is still very recent, it has emerged that the Civic Service Agency does not give the same answers on the admission of refugees into civic service according to the territorial offices.   Financial barriers are important for the Melting Potes programme, especially in its Roma Melting Potes version. Indeed, large private companies and local authorities are reluctant to put a large amount of money into helping Roma communities, even if they would like to. Companies do not want to associate their image with that of the Roma, and communities are concerned about the return of voters who may blame them for this initiative. There are also logistical challenges. Melting Potes volunteers are forced to undertake missions corresponding to office hours (9am-5pm) and not on Saturday. This temporality limits the missions. Another potential obstacle for the next year group is the recruitment of refugees.

    Transferability & Replicability

    The ambition of the Unis-cité association, hosting this innovation network, is to develop this programme throughout the country. Unis-cité has just obtained a partnership with the DI-Air (Inter-ministerial Delegation for the Reception and Integration of Refugees) to increase the number of refugees welcomed throughout France. This method is now being spread to other associations willing to invest in this type of programme.  

    Success Factors

    Among success factors, a key role has been played by the city of Toulouse and the amendment of the 2010 law. To be more specific, the city of Toulouse has carried out with the Interministerial Delegation for Housing and Access to Housing (DIHAL) an ambitious and intelligent territorial strategy for the reduction of slums. Since 2012, the DIHAL has been monitoring the dismantling of illegal camps in the territories and has provided financial support for partnership initiatives to reduce the number of slums. A total of 329 people (115 of them minors) were rehoused, including 298 in the City’s insertion and accommodation system. The operation was carried out under good conditions and in partnerships with the services of the prefecture, the town hall of Toulouse, the Departmental Directorate of Social Cohesion, the Central Directorate of Public Security, the municipal police and social workers from the Soliha and France Horizon associations, and the French Red Cross. The successful running of these operations and pre-existing partnerships in the territory have helped to facilitate the development of the Melting Potes programme.   Second, the amendment of the Civic Service Act has allowed beneficiaries of international protection, and some other refugees, to access civic service.

    Lessons learned

    The hosting structures were initially difficult to convince, on the one hand because the association did not have any concrete results to present on this programme, and on the other hand because the programme had to be set up over a very short period of time. As a result, the local coordinator began by offering this program to Unis-cités’ historical partners (Emmaüs, Les restos du cœur, la banque alimentaire). When the programme was presented, some associations were reluctant to welcome young people from the Roma community, explaining the difficulties they might have in communicating with this community. Paradoxically, solving these types of communication difficulties is the purpose of the programme. The aim is to resolve the difficulties of understanding which exist between the French community and the Roma community or the families of refugees. From the third year group of Melting Potes, the trend was reversed, i.e. a large number of associations and organisations came forward to ask for Melting Potes civic service volunteers. More generally, this case study revealed the importance in the case of social innovation of disseminating innovation and sharing good practices between associations.

    Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

    This programme, targeted at minors aged 16 to 18 who have dropped out of school, was launched in 2012 by the Unis-Cité association. Unis-Cité, which has extensive experience in mobilising young people and various profiles on civic missions, has decided to create a programme that complies with these specifications, in partnership with the Ministry of National Education and the Civic Service Agency. The Booster programme connects the Unis-cité association, the Civic Service Agency (as funder), the national education system (in particular, the MLDS – The mission that prevent school drop-outs under the French National Education System), partner Comprehensive or Vocational schools, national education volunteers, external lecturers. The networks also involves other funders: the national private funders of Unis-cité (e.g. Coca-Cola Foundation, HSBC or the SUEZ Initiative Foundation), the European Social Fund, local funders (for example the regional youth and sports department), local private foundation.

    Co-creation process

    The programme helps the main beneficiaries of the project, young people, to move from those who are accompanied and helped, to the ones who help others, which contributes to their revalorization. The specificity of the civic service association Unis-cité is to offer a team-based civic service, and to focus on diversity within groups. Through the Booster programme, since 2012, school dropouts are being remobilised by a partnership designed by Unis-Cité, the MLDS, and the Civic Service Agency, thanks to an alternating civic service programme combining missions of general interest (provided by the Unis-cité association) carried out with young adults in civic service, and sessions of school upgrading in partner Comprehensive schools (provided by the public partner). In the Booster programme, civic service is also adapted to the type of audience, with concrete solidarity actions. The supervision is more individualized and reinforced.

    Digital Transformation Process

    This case study is not about a digital transformation process, but rather social innovation. It has led to pedagogical and methodological innovations.

    Results, Outcomes & Impacts

    From an economic perspective, dropping out generates significant costs for society, much higher than those corresponding to the action of public policies in this field. The costs associated with the drop-out of a young person, accumulated over time, have been estimated for France at 230,000 euros for each student who has dropped out. The Booster programme helps to reduce this cost. The year of civic service solves a number of problems of young dropouts such as health check, opening a bank account, renew their ID card) in addition to a possible return to training or employment. On the year 2018-2019, Unis-cité welcomed between 7500 and 8000 young volunteers. For the Unis-cité association, each year, the number of school dropouts fluctuates according to the number of territories that develop the Booster programme (20 territories for the 2018-2019 school year; 18 territories in 2017-2018). For 2018-19, the programme includes 400 young people, including 200 minors.

    Challenges & Bottlenecks

    The programme costs money and cannot be financed by private funds because civic service missions associated with private funds are evaluated by funders who request quantified targets. To develop the booster programme more broadly, new funds will have to be found. At the local level, some interesting projects cannot be carried out because they require too much funding. At the same time, national education has a different culture from the Unis-cité association, if the partners on both sides are not sufficiently involved, and do not discuss among themselves, the support to young minors can quickly become inefficient. Obstacles linked to changes in partners, particularly on the national education side, with differences in the priority of the successors, can deconstruct dynamics on this type of programme. There also barriers related to the lack of tenacity of young dropouts. Getting involved in 8 months of civic service can be very long for a young dropout. In addition, apart from civic service missions, young people must also prepare their professional project, adapt themselves to their working team, and for some of them, fight their school phobias. Adapting to an audience of young dropouts is also a challenge for the Unis-cité teams because coordinators must have the profile to carry out this mission. Other challenges related to the successful implementation of the project are related to the lack of flexibility in public education and the difficulty of finding partners for civic service missions.

    Transferability & Replicability

    This project can be transferred to other communities. The ambition of the Unis-cités association would be to try to deploy at least one Booster programme in each national education academy. As soon as Unis-cité has access to an academy, this partnership gives access to several territories.

    Success Factors

    The method developed by this network of actors seems to be a major innovation in the field of early school dropout. The innovation concerns first of all the reverse method compared to the traditional methods previously proposed by the national education system or by integration organisations (academic upgrading, internships in companies, training). In the context of civic service, it is not the young person who is helped but the young person who will help others, which leads to a boost in the young person’s self-confidence. The impact is twofold: they engage in society and as a result, they help themselves. The coordination of actors is essential for the success of the programme. This requires an understanding of both the educational environment and popular education. While the two actors were initially able to operate as two parallel entities, it quickly became clear that coordination is essential for the Booster programme to be optimal. The territorial differences played an important role for the success of the project. The local offices offer quite different solutions depending on the context. The respondents pointed out that there is a great difference between rural and urban areas. In general, there are few solutions for young minors who drop out in rural areas, while solutions are often more numerous in urban areas.

    Lessons learned

    In the Booster programme, young people have 2 days of courses. One might think that the teaching method adopted was not only based on purely academic learning, but also on experimentation (personalised rhythm and social exchanges). However, practice shows that young people who agree to enter the Booster programme do not want to be differentiated in learning methods. They feel able to learn “like others” even if they have experienced failures with this method in their personal life. Another unexpected result concerns the themes of civic service missions offered to young dropouts. It appears that sustainable development missions are not generally appreciated by young dropouts. The reason could be that young dropouts are looking for direct solidarity missions, face-to-face with the beneficiary, as in the case of the restos du cœur. The missions relating to sustainable development have a concrete dimension, but solidarity is indirect, the beneficiaries are potentially all people, and also concerns future generations. Dropouts may not have the necessary distance to realise this.  

    Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

    The main beneficiaries are the ten authorized territories for the testing phase. These territories are the following ones: Pipriac and Saint-Ganton (Ille-et-Vilaine), Mauléon (Deux-Sèvres), Thiers (Puy-de-Dôme), Jouques (Bouches-du-Rhône), Villeurbanne, Saint-Jean Disctrict (Rhône ), the Community of Commons (between Nièvres and Forests) (Nièvre), Paris 13th, the Community of communes Pays de Colombey and South Toulon (Meurthe-et-Moselle), the European Metropolis of Lille (North) and Colombelles (Calvados). This experiment targets the long-term unemployed, who have been deprived of jobs or employees who have been in a reduced activity for more than one year. The eligibility criteria are i) to be unemployed for more than one year and ii) to be domiciled in the selected territory for at least 6 months. Around 1,000 to 2,000 people for the whole set of territories are expected to benefit. This national project, and the corresponding local experiments, is carried out by a network of public and associative actors (such as regional and local authorities, the National Employment Agency (Pôle emploi); associations fighting unemployment and exclusion, Social and Solidarity Economy companies. In each of the authorized territories, a local steering committee is created. The committee includes the local authority concerned, a representative of the State, the National Employment Agency, employers’ and employees’ unions, ordinary companies and the person who will set up the company that aims to create employment, associations whose purpose is to combat unemployment and reduce social exclusions, and all representatives of the persons concerned by the project.

    Co-creation process

    This project comes from the associative world, the innovation process is bottom-up. The first experiment (1995) could not be completed because of legal rigidities. Thus, the members of this Bottom-up project had to find other associative partners to give credibility to the project, as well as the support of a parliamentarian so that the project could be validated by the government on a national level, and be launched. Therefore, at this stage, the innovation network moved to a top-down approach. Therefore, it is a nice process of co-creation of public services by the government at different levels and by a network of associations. The TZCLD project includes the creation of Job-Oriented Companies, which objective is to provide long-term unemployed with jobs that meet their personal projects as well as the unsatisfied needs of the territory. The management mode of these companies is based on horizontality and transversality functions and participatory work. The management of the activity is done collectively, employees establish their working conditions. Jobseekers are project leaders. Every day, people innovate about how to work together.

    Digital Transformation Process

    The main innovation is a conceptual and social innovation, rather than digital transformation. This project applies to long-term unemployment, on a given territory, a business model already used to enable disabled people to work. This methodological innovation leads to organizational innovations (the creation of a job-oriented company); an innovative financial mechanism (the reallocation of unemployment-related expenses and costs to enable employment); and informational innovations (development of communication tools, management tools…).

    Results, Outcomes & Impacts

    Many (human, societal and economic) benefits derived from the TZCLD experiment. These expected benefits can be split according to the type of beneficiary: – For the long-term unemployed, the benefit is gaining a “right to work”, in order to get out from exclusion. The experiment is still ongoing but the first observations indicate that the beneficiaries of the Hauts-de-France experiment have been reintegrated into society, at least at the civic level and through social ties. – For local economic actors, the benefit is to have access to a potentially available workforce, This workforce accepts to do useful works that is not completely solvent on the market place. – For the territory, the main interest of a JOC is to recreate territorial social links.  As the local labor is locally prepared, this makes it possible to locate or relocate productions or services on the territory. – For the economy of the country: On the economic level, JOCs contribute to taxes and social contributions, they create value. Permanent job creations boost purchasing power. It also reduce social problem issues such as health problems, school dropouts, etc).

    Challenges & Bottlenecks

    At the national level, the project met barriers from the financial administration which was reluctant to have to advance public funds without being assured of the success of the experiment. It was also necessary to convince the government and members of Parliament of the non-destruction of employment. It has been decided to create local committees to ensure this non-competition. This fear of competition has slowed down the start of this project. At the local level, the barriers may be human, financial technical and territory-related. As for the challenges, one of the main is that jobs created must not compete with existing jobs. Also, when this experiment will be over, if the process continues, all partners/organisations who are currently concerned by indirect costs (such as social security) will have to pay the corresponding amount of money. Currently, the cost is covered by the territorial Fund. In each local experiment, researchers are currently working on indicators that will have to establish the social prevention that has been carried out on the territory thanks to this experience.

    Transferability & Replicability

    Given the difficulties related to territories, this project could be extended to other interested communities but not generalised to all territories. Sometimes, local authorities are not enthusiastic to create activities from grassroots contributions, they may be afraid of losing their authority. Thus, the success of the project depends on the involvement of the territorial stakeholders. The project can only work on the logic of volunteering. Such a system cannot be established by the government without the approval of the unemployed. This means that generalisation across the country will not be possible.

    Success Factors

    As the project is in the inception phase, it is not yet possible to evaluate its success. However, a large number of jobs have already been created. The number of contractual workforces from January 2017 to June 2018 in the 10 territories included in the project has increased from 33 to 564 people.

    Lessons learned

    The lessons learned so far will focus on the weight of the state regulation in this social issue, on the importance of building the project on existing links on local territories, on the nature of the jobs created by the JOC, and finally on the importance of the choice of the territory. The first lesson learned is that social innovation including national social issues are impossible to implement solely with a bottom-up process. This type of project as TZCLD can only be achieved with the intervention of the government in terms of regulation. Another important lesson is related to the importance of existing territorial networks to implement the project. The network of partners at the local level may be different from the national network of partners. First, because national partners do not always have local branches on the authorized territories, while partners must belong to the territory to take advantage of existing social links, and to favour the creation of links with other partners at the local level. When it comes to the nature of activities created by the JOCs, it is necessary to clearly identify the role of each stakeholder of a TZCLD territory to send the long-term unemployed to the most appropriate structure according to its degree of exclusion, in order to avoid the destruction of value. Finally, the nature and size of the chosen territory is an essential element for the success of the project. The local level creates social bonds that cannot be achieved at a macroeconomic level. The identification of needs, and of competing activities can also only be established on a very limited territory.

    Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

    The value creation of the MAIA method is first to improve the efficiency of the elderly pathway and the well-being of users (by improving the quality of care, the accessibility to services). The value creation is also directed towards professionals (as users of the MAIA office) and user’s family as it seeks to avoid the bad quality of answers given to the user’s family, to caregivers and health professionals. The MAIA method also create value via the professional dynamics generated through the harmonization and standardization of professional practices (by working on shared common tools, sharing knowledge, implementing protocols as a means to improve quality and equity). Partnership value is created over time by the mobilization of professionals, the pilot, and the case manager (identification of new resource persons). This dynamic should improve the service system (by identifying missing services, to avoid service disruption and wrong orientations, creating co-responsibility, by adjusting the offer to the needs). Finally, at an economic scale, it concerns citizens as taxpayers, the reduction of non-quality costs should reduce the amount of taxes.

    Co-creation process

    If the MAIA method is originally top-down, the deployment is left to the initiative of the MAIA pilot: this approach requires a bottom up process because the priorities and drivers of actions, which enable this method to be implemented, must emerge from the partners themselves. The MAIA system requires the commitment and the co-empowerment of stakeholders of the health, medico-social and social sectors. However, this co-empowerment is not spontaneously developed, especially in the context of instability of the ARS teams. In the MAIA system, the value is created by the whole set of professional partners who participate to the working groups to create common communication tools (e.g. orientation forms), who also try to articulate and adjust the existing committees with the tactical table. For example, the development of an integrated, one-stop service, can only be done with the partners (meetings, training). The value is created by all the stakeholders. They create the final value for the benefit of the user (through training, tool sharing, but also by transmitting information about dysfunctions of the system or transferring information about elderly people in precarious situation). They also use the MAIA framework themselves to find contacts and to orient patients towards case managers.

    Digital Transformation Process

    The MAIA method is more a social innovation, rather than digital transformation, which seeks to transform the health system by implementing new forms of organization of collective work.   Nevertheless, it implies a digital innovation related to MAIA’s three communication tools. (a) A shared Multidimensional Analysis Form (used by professionals from the one-step services) and the multidimensional assessment tool (used by case managers). (b) The Individualized Service Plan (PSI). It is a case management tool used to define and to plan in a consistent manner all the interventions provided to the elderly in a complex situation. (c) Shared information systems (it gathers information from the one-stop service, from the MAIA pilot, and from the case managers …). It requires the development of a common shared information system and action-steering tools, to create a directory database to identify local resources, and to be able to create the integrated, one-stop service.

    Results, Outcomes & Impacts

    One of the main value creations of the MAIA method is the improvement of the accessibility to services by providing an adapted answer to a problem. The aim is to avoid the bad quality of answers given to users, user’s family and caregivers. Thus, monitoring indicators have been developed and used during the implementation stage of the MAIA method especially to assess the number of contacts a senior must have established to access to the right resource. The result is that the integration of orientation counters into a one-step services simplifies people’s pathway and substantially reduce the number of contacts. At the local level, the impact in terms of organization is measured in different ways, such as the participation rate of partners at the tactical table, or the territorial distribution of seniors being managed for the case management. Regarding the participation rate of partners, the results indicate that the participants to the tactical tables are always the same volunteers, actors who encounter difficulties in their daily practice do not often wish to participate (as this could be viewed as failure) and general practitioners are rarely part of the table.

    Challenges & Bottlenecks

    Before the denomination of “Method of action for the integration of healthcare and support services in the field of autonomy”, the acronym MAIA was used for “House for autonomy and integration of Alzheimer disease”. The use of the first denomination of « MAIA » as a « House » resulted in a misunderstanding of the method.   Beyond the misunderstanding of the denomination, the notion of integration is not well understood by a lot of actors. Actors are often seeking for interstitial measures, such as accommodation solution after hospitalization, Psychogeriatric mobile team, night nurse, etc. But these interstitial measures are clinical solutions instead of an integration system. Moreover, the MAIA method needs time to be implemented, because trust and relationships between actors take time to appear. Another barrier comes from the competition between the MAIA project and other national projects from which objectives are close to the MAIA method. On the top of that, there is a problem with the choice of the territory. The MAIA pilot must first choose the geographical territory that will be affected by the method and within which professionals will be contacted. This choice is important because it has to correspond to Regional Health Authorities, which are coordinating the project. The result of the experimental phase showed that the private actor as a holder of the project is not appropriate because it could lead to conflict of interest. It also poses a problem of data confidentiality.  

    Transferability & Replicability

    The MAIA method is transferable. MAIAs were tested on 17 sites in France to refine tools, work procedures, and training content for case managers. Following this experiment, the method was extended on the French territory. Currently, the MAIA method is a public policy institutionalized in the Family and social action code.  

    Success Factors

    The MAIA method as social innovation led to a methodological and organizational method: The MAIA project is a working method disseminated all over the territory so that the healthcare, social and medico-social actors of local territories work better collectively. Therefore, it leads to organizational local innovation: various stakeholders innovate together in order to find corrective measures to organizational dysfunctions observed on the local territory. This method promotes the mutual adjustment of each other actor’s missions. Otherwise, the actors may ignore each other by lack of legibility of the system, or may feel in competition with each other.  

    Lessons learned

    A partially unexpected result is about the role of private partners and the data privacy issue raised by the concept of integration. The integration process implies the participation of private partners. The private partners could be the holder of the MAIA project. During the experimental phase, the “Private holder” management did not work for reasons of conflict of interest, which results in a problem of credibility of the (private) holder. The other professionals of the territory do not accept the holder and its practices. This lack of credibility is compounded with the problem of confidentiality of patient data. The private holder may use this data to charge services or may not protect these data enough.

    Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

    Library Living Lab was incepted as a good example of inter-institutional collaboration with all relevant stakeholders making up the “quadruple helix”: the City of Sant Cugat del Vallés, the Provincial Council of Barcelona, the Autonomous University of Barcelona, the Computer Visión Center (CVC) and the Association of Neighbours of Vollpellieres. Some support from the powerful industrial base surrounding the area was also acknowledged. The beneficiaries are the library users, who have spanned thanks to the different pioneering and activities delivered (let alone the rise of new “communities of knowledge” that have been built thanks to the library).

    Co-creation process

    Users are fully involved in co-producing and co-innovation and decisions are taken along with the project director. Notwithstanding this, co-creation is not based upon “open participatory processes”.   A co-creative strategy was rolled out based on the definition of different user profiles. Thus, users have been classified according to the degree of involvement (and accordingly, co-creative potential):
    • Alpha users.
    • Beta users.
    • Gamma users.
    • Delta users
    Alpha users the most motivated/engaged users and delta users the lowest.

    Digital Transformation Process

    This case study is not about a digital transformation process

    Results, Outcomes & Impacts

    Development of robust metrics to measure performance is a pending (and crucial) issue in the Library Living Lab. Nevertheless, a protocol has been set up to define actions, as all projects and activities are shaped according to a triplet of (Social) challenge- Action-Return. This approach based on three different stages is aligned with the main pillars described in the Responsible Research and Innovation approach (European Commission, 2016), which is used to tackle dimensions such as awareness, transparency, and openness. Notwithstanding this, some projects have been monitored and followed up in a more ad hoc and closer way and some KPIs rolled up accordingly. Unfortunately, possible lessons learnt have not been capitalised to be somehow “plugged & played” to other projects.

    Challenges & Bottlenecks

    The definition of the governance & sustainability model has proceeded at a low pace, and it has been very recently when the model has been consolidated with the hiring of a Living Lab manager, who was considered to be an imperative need from the beginning. The consideration of the Library Living Lab as an example of a multi-layer institutional collaborative project implied a tremendous effort of alignment to set up a common language to be shared across all institutions by fixing terminology and procedures, defining new fields of common knowledge, understanding what was and what was not allowed in the public space, etc. Something which is still in the pipeline is the idea of a “living lab as a service” implying the design of a “service portfolio” to be offered to different stakeholders. This is a (still lacking) and relevant step that could help jump the lab to a higher status in the future, as well as ensure a lab self-sustainability path over the coming years. Finally, some cultural barriers may still exist (e.g. library assistants, once in the library, may realize that some required tasks are not sufficiently known or expected, and some kind of reluctancy may arise).

    Transferability & Replicability

    One of the inspiring figures of L3 was the former Mayor of Sant Cugat, who eventually became the President of the Provincial Council of Barcelona. As President of the Provincial Council, she supported a new project, called BibloLab. BiblioLab entailed the commitment to spread the experience of the L3 to the whole network of libraries located in the Province of Barcelona, that is to say, 250 libraries. This new shift allowed working on a new model where the library becomes a space of interaction amongst communities around.

    Success Factors

    The Library Living Lab has enabled the achievement of a new range of experiences offered, thus opening the library up to other types of the library users, who probably otherwise would not visit it, and increasing the possibility of user participation in joint projects with rich profiles. The concept of “community of interest” or “community of knowledge” is something which is behind the library success, as it has become a rather creative space where something new or not previously planned can happen as a result of a collaborative work ensemble. One major contribution of L3 is that decision making processes are fully open, and library users (along with other stakeholders) are engaged in such dynamics. This is a distinctive and differential aspect of the Library Living Lab when succeed in building up and consolidating communities. In fact, user co-creation practices started at very early stages, when they were required to identify communities of practice in order to build and scale projects around.

    Lessons learned

    Technology is considered to play a relevant role around this initiative, but as an enabling factor. In fact,  L3 is about people and around the mechanisms governing individuals and inter-institutional collaboration. The society may obtain transformative socio-economic impact from the innovations arising from the collaborative processes only when people are truly engaged (i.e, users and other stakeholders). As a result of this initiative, the libraries are no longer considered “book repositories”, but “meeting points of knowledge exchange”. The motto of these libraries is the same: “create, explore, innovate”. To sum up, the main contribution of the Library Living Lab is the push towards a systemic change and as such, it can be deemed as a rather pioneering initiative.  

    Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

    The main goal of INTRAS Foundation is thus helping people suffering from mental illness and cognitive impairment restore their life project through the delivery of an integral circuit of care resources and services and the deployment of different R&D&I activities. This integral circuit of care resources involves: a) prevention/intervention/rehabilitation; b) monitoring & evaluation; c) education & training; d) self-management & empowerment; e) fight against stigma; f) labour integration; g) management and coordination.

    Co-creation process

    Even though the activity is focused on people suffering from mental illness and cognitive impairment, IDES provides help and “guidelines” in the living lab sessions, but final decisions are ultimately taken by patients so as to ensure that they live the life they wish, taking into account that users’ capabilities are rather different according to the degree of impairment, which obviously is conditioning the degree of involvement.   IDES vision advocates that the best ideas come from involving people, and without the insights gained through the lived experiences, policy makers and professionals run the risk of developing costly services that do not meet the needs of those who will be using them.   Notwithstanding this, co-creation as a concept has fairly evolved along with different key projects implemented so far at IDES. In fact, two different periods may be distinguished. Thus, a first period (2007-2014) is characterized by the creation of a new stakeholders´ ecosystem. In this first stage, user was fairly considered a tester. The second period, which started in 2014 and is still on-going, strongly advocates participatory design and user co-creation. Different projects implemented throughout the period have helped gear this major shift (e.g CAPTAIN or MinD). Period 2019-2028 is set to evolve through an encompassing community-based approach, where co-creation is not focused merely on users, but on citizens.

    Digital Transformation Process

    This case study is not about digital transformation

    Results, Outcomes & Impacts

    Outstanding effort is being devoted to come up with metrics aimed at measuring contribution of users in co-creation processes and experiences. IDES do provide evaluation of sessions in terms of, for example, usefulness or satisfaction, but they lack systemic/overall evaluation tools. Furthermore, evaluation is very much anchored on qualitative (subjective) indicators that do not provide robust evidence for comparison (i.e. levels of satisfaction and/or empowerment), whereas quantitative indicators are not usually considered because they are not easy to obtain as co-creation deal with perceptions and people interactions. ROI type of impact measurement would be also quite necessary in terms of accountability, thus providing evidence that projects do work, which eventually may imply higher attention by the public sector and better project funding. Notwithstanding this, some specific and pioneering assessment methodologies are being developed in the context of specific projects where IDES is engaged (e.g., CAPTAIN, where a new protocol of cost-effectiveness indicators is being created). Finally, it should be mentioned that users´ level of engagement (recurrence) is also considered a way of measuring performance by IDES projects. As such, if users are keeping on attending subsequent co-creation sessions, this is a clear sign of good performance.

    Challenges & Bottlenecks

    A major challenge is how effectively measure outcomes and impacts of IDES activity and how to gauge user co-creation according to the level of impairment. Furthermore, IDES living lab is at the centre of a vast ecosystem bridging healthcare service providers, research and technological centres, technology-based companies and users and the public sector, whereby a major challenge is how to arrange this ecosystem in a meaningful and useful way to achieve IDES goals. In that sense, IDES role as a “network/linking infrastructure” is paramount.  

    Transferability & Replicability

    This “user co-creation” based framework is is set to evolve through an encompassing community-based approach, where co-creation is not focused merely on users, but on citizens. As such, according to this scenario, co-creation is far from being a “niche” concept intended to be operated by users to become the centre of many citizenry-based settings. That is, it will imply using co-creation as the raison d’etre of providing participatory solutions where the citizen (and not the user) is the ultimate protagonist. As it may be noticed, this is to be a major shift at IDES activity in the future, since co-creation practices are meant to be somewhat different and the role of the different stakeholders would need to be accordingly adapted. In this sense, IDES is working on evolving the concept of living lab into “impact hubs” that will combine innovation deployment with the introduction of further levels of citizen´s participatory models to build upon the very concept of community (instead of “group”).

    Success Factors

    The motto of IDES is “nothing about us without us”. Involving users in a participatory process creates commitment, empowerment and appropriateness, thus making up a “convincing case”, a “service ambassador” and an incentive against sceptical people. Massive collaboration and participation are in the DNA of IDES, as “cross-fertilisation” is a major driver of success (i.e., more than 2,000 people of different nationalities do collaborate in different initiatives put forward by INTRAS-IDES). Heavy involvement in different projects (some of them European-based, such as CAPTAIN, MIND or PROCURA) has enabled the deployment of innovative and pioneering methodologies & technologies spurring co-creation.

    Lessons learned

    Co-creation unleashed by IDES Living Lab activity allows the achievement of higher levels of trust, self-empowerment, self-autonomy or perception of identity on the user side. Furthermore, public value is also created by improving social engagement (with other patients, staff, family and friends) and community building.  

    Stakeholders & Beneficiaries

    The main stakeholders and beneficiaries are Brøndby Jobcenter, the disabled citizens, Brøndby Municipality, the recruitment companies as well as the society at large.

    Co-creation process

    The co-creation process can be divided into two phases. In the first phase, Jacob, an employee in charge of the flexi job scheme at Jobcenter Brøndby, and his manager recognize that the flexi-job process and network is operating in an inefficient way. As a result, it takes too long time to get a flexi- job candidate into work. For example, in the first 13 weeks after a citizen came to Jobcenter Brøndby, nothing happened and in some cases, nothing happened maybe for another 13 weeks. After the waiting period, a disabled citizen was allocated to a recruitment company at a time, so there was no competition between the different recruitment companies to get a citizen into work. Therefore, Jacob and his manager had made some strategic considerations about simultaneously allocating several recruitment agencies to find a flexi-job to a citizen. The process involved a lot of discussions, reflections and co-creation. The result of this process was that Jacob discussed this issue with one of his friends who is an IT expert and together they started conceptualizing and co-creating an IT solution that could solve this problem. This represents the second co-creation phase. The idea for establishing a company started therefore in 2012 and in 2013 the IT solution, “JobIntra”, was developed and E-BRO APS was founded with Jacob and his partner as co-founders.

    Digital Transformation Process

    JobIntra has induced a digital transformation of the process of finding a job to a flexi-job candidate. This digital process innovation can described as a “reverse process” of finding a job. In fact, prior to JobIntra the Jobcenter Brøndby allocated a candidate to one and only one recruitment company at a time, who then tried to find a job to the candidate. With JobIntra, Jobcenter Brøndby inputs a candidate information into the IT system. This information can be accessed by all recruitment companies that simultaneously try to find flexi-jobs to the candidate, thus competing on a candidate.  Furthermore, the recruitment companies can directly get in contact with the citizens, if necessary, thus improving substantially the communication among the different actors involved in finding a job.  This speeds up the process.

    Results, Outcomes & Impacts

    The adoption of JobIntra at Jobcenter Brøndby has generated several positive results.   Firstly, JobIntra has contributed to decrease unemployment among the flexi-jobs in Brøndby Municipality, which as a result has been ranked as one of the Danish municipalities with lowest flexi-jobs unemployment rates. Second, due to its functionality, JobIntra has substantially reduced the amount of time that the Jobcenter Brøndby’s  employees use on each specific flexi-job. This in turn has generated resources that can be used on the most complicated cases or on other types of activities within the job center. Thirdly, by reducing the amount of time it takes to place an unemployed disabled on the job market, it has increased the satisfaction of these citizens.  In the long term, JobIntra may benefit Brøndby Municipality and the Danish society, because by speeding up the process of finding jobs and by decreasing the number of unemployed disabled citizens, JobIntra decreases the amount of public subsidy paid to the unemployed by saving public unemployment expenditures.

    Challenges & Bottlenecks

    The main challenge concerns JobIntra’s wider adoption and use in other Danish municipalities, thus restricting the potential benefits that it could bring to society. It takes a lot of effort for E-BRO APS to get through the public eco-system, mainly due to the distance between the operational level and the policy level.

    Transferability & Replicability

    The IT solution “JobIntra” can be used and adopted by other job centers within the Danish context. This is what E-BRO APS does now: tries to sell the application to other Danish municipalities. Whether JobIntra could be applied and used in other national contexts depends on the way unemployment agencies are organized in such contexts.  

    Success Factors

    An important success factor is the use and adoption of JobIntra in other municipalities as this may contribute to decrease the number of unemployed flexi jobbers at national level with several societal benefits such as increased happiness and satisfaction of the unemployed disabled citizens and  saving in public unemployment expenditures. This is also the very main challenge that E-BRO APS is facing on a day to day basis.

    Lessons learned

    JobIntra is an innovation that may bring strategic changes at job centers in Denmark within the flexi job scheme. However, as most innovations, it is difficult for E-BRO APS to have it adopted and used in other municipalities. The main reasons being the distance between the operational and policy level in Danish municipalities.